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Type: Parasitic


>> caused by Costia ichthyobodo, a fast and constantly moving, crescent-shaped parasite (protozoa) that exhibits a characteristic flickering motion, measuring about 10-20 microns in length, making them very difficult to observe even at 400X magnification;

>> generally not harmful in small numbers, but can be threatening if their population is left unchecked

>> costia has two pairs of flagella, one of which is used for propelling itself and attaching itself to a host, while the other is used for feeding

>> costia, which reproduces by longitudinal fission, can not live for more than two hours without a host; it also can not survive at temperatures above 28 deg C

>> costia is transmitted by direct contact but can also transfer from host to host by swimming; it can also be transferred from pond to pond through nets




>> rubbing of body against rocks and pond surfaces

>> skin cloudiness and milkiness due to excess mucus

>> focal redness

>> labored and heavy breathing

>> long spells of lethargy at the pond bottom with clamped fins

>> at an advanced stage, isolation of itself at the pond surface or near a water return

>> presence of clusters of parasites in pyriform shape on the gills and skin





>> mild infestations may be treated with salt baths

>> mild infestations may also be treated with malachite green and formalin together

>> potassium permanganate may also be used for treatment

>> severe infestations may be treated with Chloramine-T and long-term salt therapy

>> some experts also recommend copper (2 mg/liter) or Acriflavine (1 ml per liter)



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